Lift-to-drag ratio and laminar flow control of a morphing laminar wing in a wind tunnel

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Journal titleSmart Materials and Structures
Article number35019
SubjectAerodynamic performance; Closed loop controllers; Closed-loop; Closed-loop control; Control strategies; Cruise flight; Flow condition; Hard-ware-in-the-loop; Infra-red cameras; Lift-to-drag ratio; Morphing; Numerical optimizations; Open loop control; Open loops; Shape memory alloy actuators; Unactuated; Upper surface; Wing profiles; Cameras; Closed loop control systems; Drag; Laminar flow; Lift; Mach number; Structural optimization; Synthetic apertures; Temperature indicating cameras; Wind tunnels; Lift drag ratio
AbstractA new hardware-in-the-loop control strategy to enhance the aerodynamic performance of a two-dimensional morphing laminar wing prototype was developed and tested. The testing was performed in a wind tunnel under cruise flight flow conditions: Mach number ranging from 0.2 to 0.3 and angle of attack from - 1° to 0.5°. For each set of flow conditions, the shape of the upper surface of the wing was modified using two independent shape memory alloy actuators. The wing shape was morphed in two sequential steps. The initial morphed shape was controlled using open-loop architecture and the results of an anterior aero-structural numerical optimization study. The final morphed shape was closed-loop controlled using either the wind tunnel balance or an infrared camera as hardware-in-the-loop to give an instantaneous lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) or a laminar flow extension (x tr/c) over the upper surface of the prototype. In respect to the aerodynamic performance of the unactuated wing profile, the L/D gain varies from 10.6 to 15% for the closed-loop control strategy compared to 10.0 to 13.7% for the open-loop control strategy. Laminar flow extension gains, Δx tr/c, measured by infrared camera, were situated in the 29-33% range for both control strategies. However, the results obtained showed that the closed-loop controller could be hindered by the noise of the hardware-in-the-loop signal. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Publication date
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC); Aerospace (AERO-AERO)
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21271256
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Record identifier04a55d15-a94a-4734-95e0-9909da32fa7f
Record created2014-03-24
Record modified2016-05-09
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