Biodegradation of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium: new insight into the degradation pathway

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1021/es049671d
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TypeArticle
Journal titleEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume38
Issue15
Pages41304133; # of pages: 4
SubjectBiodegradation; env
AbstractOctahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is a recalcitrant energetic chemical that tends to accumulate in soil, close to the surface. The present study describes the aerobic biodegradability of HMX using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. When added to 7 day old static P. chrysosporium liquid cultures, HMX (600 nmol) degraded within 25 days of incubation. The removal of HMX was concomitant with the formation of transient amounts of its mono-nitroso derivative (1-NO-HMX). The latter apparently degraded via two potential routes: the first involved N-denitration followed by hydrolytic ring cleavage, and the second involved alpha-hydroxylation prior to ring cleavage. The degradation of 1-NO-HMX gave the ring-cleavage product 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), nitrite (NO2-), nitrous oxide (N2O), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Using (14C)-HMX, we obtained 14CO2 (70% in 50 days), representing three C atoms of HMX. Incubation of real soils, contaminated with either HMX (403 mumol kg-1) (military base soil) or HMX (3057 mumol kg-1), and RDX (342 mumol kg-1) (ammunition soil) with the fungus led to 75 and 19.8% mineralization of HMX (liberated 14CO2), respectively, also via the intermediary formation of 1-NO-HMX. Mineralization in the latter soil increased to 35% after the addition of glucose, indicating that a fungus-based remediation process for heavily contaminated soils is promising. The present findings improve our understanding about the degradation pathway of HMX and demonstrate the utility of using the robust and versatile fungus P. chrysosporium to develop effective remediation processes for the removal of HMX.
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNRC Biotechnology Research Institute; National Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedNo
NRC number47199
NPARC number3539652
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Record identifier0aff1c01-9bbd-4d38-82e8-45541968fc3a
Record created2009-03-01
Record modified2016-05-09
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