Deep bench marks in clay and permafrost areas

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Journal titleASTM Special Technical Publication
Pages265279; # of pages: 15
SubjectPermafrost; Soils; clay soils; bench marks
AbstractThis paper describes the design and use of deep bench marks by the Division of Building Research of the National Research Council of Canada. The bench marks consist of an inner pipe protected by an outer casing from the effects of seasonal ground movements and frost action. In sensitive clays the bench mark is installed by jacking or driving the outer casing with relatively simple equipment. In stiffer clays it is inserted in an augered hole and then turned and pushed to refusal with a drill rig. In permafrost areas, the bench mark is placed in a drilled or steamed hole to a depth at which the lower portion of the inner rod is securely anchored in the perennially frozen ground. Details of bench mark assemblies and installation techniques for soft clays, stiff clays, and frozen ground are described.
Publication date
AffiliationNRC Institute for Research in Construction; National Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedNo
NRC number7289
NPARC number20375503
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Record identifier0e457ca8-1de7-461e-af4d-772c5bc4541b
Record created2012-07-23
Record modified2016-05-09
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