Toxicity and bioaccumulation of reduced TNT metabolites in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to amended forest soil

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2003.11.049
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TypeArticle
Journal titleChemosphere
Volume55
Issue10
Pages13391348; # of pages: 10
Subjectenv
AbstractSoils contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and TNT primary reduction products have been found to be toxic to certain soil invertebrates, such as earthworms. The mechanism of toxicity of TNT and of its by-products is still not known. To ascertain if one of the TNT reduction products underlies TNT toxicity, we tested the toxicity and bioaccumulation of TNT reduction products. 2-Amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene (2,6-DANT) were tested separately in adult earthworms (Eisenia andrei) following a 14-d exposure to amended sandy loam forest soil. TNT, 4-ADNT, and 2-ADNT were lethal to earthworms (14-d LC50 were: 580, 531 and 1088 mumol kg-1, or 132, 105 and 215 mg kg-1 dry soil, respectively) and gave the following order of toxicity: 4-ADNT > TNT > 2-ADNT. Exposure to 2,4-DANT and to 2,6-DANT caused no mortality at 600 mumol kg-1 or 100 mg kg-1 dry soil. We found that all four TNT reduction products accumulated in earthworm tissues and 2-ADNT reached the highest levels at 3.0 +/- 0.3 mumol g-1 tissue. The 14-d bioaccumulation factors were 5.1, 6.4, 5.1 and 3.2 for 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, 2,4-DANT and 2,6-DANT, respectively. Results also suggest that some TNT metabolites are at least as toxic as TNT and should be considered when evaluating the overall toxicity of TNT-contaminated soil to earthworms. Crown Copyright Copyright 2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.No de contr�le 93189765
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AffiliationNational Research Council Canada; NRC Biotechnology Research Institute
Peer reviewedNo
NRC number45946
NPARC number3539692
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Record identifier16181e43-4343-48f5-b7c0-5540b46530b9
Record created2009-03-01
Record modified2016-05-09
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