Phytotoxicity of nitroaromatic energetic compounds freshly amended or weathered and aged in sandy loam soil

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.06.057
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TypeArticle
Journal titleChemosphere
ISSN0045-6535
Volume62
Issue4
Pages545558; # of pages: 14
SubjectBenzene Derivatives; Echinochloa; Lolium; Medicago sativa; Plant Shoots; Seedling; Silicon Dioxide; Soil; Soil Pollutants; Time Factors; Weather; TNT; TNB; Dinitrotoluene; Plant toxicity; Weathering and aging; Hormesis; Natural soil
AbstractThe toxicities of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT) to terrestrial plants alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), Japanese millet (Echinochloa crusgalli L.), and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) were determined in Sassafras sandy loam soil using seedling emergence, fresh shoot, and dry mass measurement endpoints. A 13-week weathering and aging of energetic materials in soils, which included wetting and drying cycles, and exposure to sunlight of individual soil treatments, was incorporated into the study design to better reflect the soil exposure conditions in the field than toxicity determinations in freshly amended soils. Definitive toxicity tests showed that dinitrotoluenes were more phytotoxic for all plant species in freshly amended treatments based on EC20 values for dry shoot ranging from 3 to 24mgkg(-1) compared with values for TNB or TNT ranging from 43 to 62mgkg(-1). Weathering and aging of energetic materials (EMs) in soil significantly decreased the toxicity of TNT, TNB or 2,6-DNT to Japanese millet or ryegrass based on seedling emergence, but significantly increased the toxicity of all four EMs to all three plant species based on shoot growth. Exposure of the three plant species to relatively low concentrations of the four compounds initially stimulated plant growth before the onset of inhibition at greater concentrations (hormesis).
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada; NRC Biotechnology Research Institute
Peer reviewedNo
Identifier10057511
NPARC number12328703
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Record identifier1d2a62cd-3aed-4c4a-babc-b5977e04daf6
Record created2009-09-10
Record modified2016-05-09
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