Acute and chronic toxicity of the new explosive CL-20 in the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) exposed to amended natural soils

Download
  1. Get@NRC: Acute and chronic toxicity of the new explosive CL-20 in the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) exposed to amended natural soils (Opens in a new window)
DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1897/03-308
AuthorSearch for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for:
TypeArticle
Journal titleEnvironmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Volume23
Issue4
Pages10261034; # of pages: 9
AbstractMonocyclic nitramine explosives such as 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) are toxic to a number of ecological receptors, including earthworms. The polycyclic nitramine CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) is a powerful explosive that may replace RDX and HMX, but its toxicity is not known. In the present study, the lethal and sublethal toxicities of CL-20 to the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) are evaluated. Two natural soils, a natural sandy forest soil (designated RacFor2002) taken in the Montreal area (QC, Canada; 20% organic carbon, pH 7.2) and a Sassafras sandy loam soil (SSL) taken on the property of U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (Edgewood, MD, USA; 0.33% organic carbon, pH 5.1), were used. Results showed that CL-20 was not lethal at concentrations of 125 mg/kg or less in the RacFor2002 soil but was lethal at concentrations of 90.7 mg/kg or greater in the SSL soil. Effects on the reproduction parameters such as a decrease in the number of juveniles after 56 d of exposure were observed at the initial CL-20 concentration of 1.6 mg/kg or greater in the RacFor2002 soil, compared to 0.2 mg/kg or greater in the SSL soil. Moreover, low concentrations of CL-20 in SSL soil (apprx0.1 mg/kg; nominal concentration) were found to reduce the fertility of earthworms. Taken together, the present results show that CL-20 is a reproductive toxicant to the earthworm, with lethal effects at higher concentrations. Its toxicity can be decreased in soils favoring CL-20 adsorption (high organic carbon content).
Publication date
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada; NRC Biotechnology Research Institute
Peer reviewedNo
NRC number45922
NPARC number3540196
Export citationExport as RIS
Report a correctionReport a correction
Record identifier21709467-44fd-4552-a4c6-024ee0be10e1
Record created2009-03-01
Record modified2016-05-09
Bookmark and share
  • Share this page with Facebook (Opens in a new window)
  • Share this page with Twitter (Opens in a new window)
  • Share this page with Google+ (Opens in a new window)
  • Share this page with Delicious (Opens in a new window)