Degradation of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) using zerovalent iron nanoparticles

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1021/es7028153
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TypeArticle
Journal titleEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume42
Issue12
Pages43644370; # of pages: 7
AbstractHexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a common contaminant of soil and water at military facilities. The present study describes degradation of RDX with zerovalent iron nanoparticles (ZVINs) in water in the presence or absence of a stabilizer additive such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) or poly(acrylic acid) (PAA). The rates of RDX degradation in solution followed this order CMC-ZVINs > PAA-ZVINs > ZVINs with k1 values of 0.816 ± 0.067, 0.082 ± 0.002, and 0.019 ± 0.002 min−1, respectively. The disappearance of RDX was accompanied by the formation of formaldehyde, nitrogen, nitrite, ammonium, nitrous oxide, and hydrazine by the intermediary formation of methylenedinitramine (MEDINA), MNX (hexahydro-1-nitroso-,3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine), DNX (hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine), TNX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine). When either of the reduced RDX products (MNX or TNX) was treated with ZVINs we observed nitrite (from MNX only), NO (from TNX only), N2O, NH4+, NH2NH2 and HCHO. In the case of TNX we observed a new key product that we tentatively identified as 1,3-dinitroso-5-hydro-1,3,5-triazacyclohexane. However, we were unable to detect the equivalent denitrohydrogenated product of RDX and MNX degradation. Finally, during MNX degradation we detected a new intermediate identified as N-nitroso-methylenenitramine (ONNHCH2NHNO2), the equivalent of methylenedinitramine formed upon denitration of RDX. Experimental evidence gathered thus far suggested that ZVINs degraded RDX and MNX via initial denitration and sequential reduction to the corresponding nitroso derivatives prior to completed decomposition but degraded TNX exclusively via initial cleavage of the N-NO bond(s).
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada; NRC Biotechnology Research Institute
Peer reviewedNo
NRC number49928
NPARC number3539832
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Record identifier2280b21d-98f2-4d54-b97e-3a1d5250f443
Record created2009-03-01
Record modified2016-05-09
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