Phytotoxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) in spiked artificial and natural forest soils

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-002-2018-1
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TypeArticle
Journal titleArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Volume44
Issue2
Pages198209; # of pages: 12
AbstractToxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) using two terrestrial plant species, lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and barley (Hordeum vugare), was assessed in artificial soil (silica) and forest soil. Lettuce emergence was significantly decreased after 5 days of exposure to TNT nominal spiked concentrations S 1,040 mg/kg dry soil in silica. Barley emergence was significantly reduced after 14 days of exposure at initial (t = 0) TNT concentrations S 55.9 - 4.5 mg/kg dry soil in silica and at S 291.9 - 42.8 mg/kg dry forest soil. Biomasses of shoot and roots of barley seeds were significantly reduced after 14 days of exposure at TNT initial exposure concentrations S 55.9 - 4.5 (LOEC) mg/kg dry soil in silica. Results were similar with the forest soil (LOEC = 91.4 - 7.9 mg TNT/kg dry soil) using the root growth parameter, but the shoot biomass was reduced only at concentrations S 291.9 - 42.8 mg TNT/kg dry soil. Plants were not affected by an HMX exposure up to 3,320 - 1,019 mg/kg dry soil using silica or 1,866 - 438 mg/kg dry soil using a forest soil. During the 14-day experiments, TNT was partially transformed in the spiked soil samples, as indicated by the presence of its amino metabolites (2-ADNT and 4-ADNT). Higher quantities of metabolites were detected in forest soils having higher initial TNT concentrations (h 1,849.4 - 228.2 mg/kg) compared to silica (h 239.3 - 88.0 mg TNT/kg). After 14 days, TNT concentrations in spiked silica and forest soil were reduced up to 80.5% at 55.9 - 4.5 mg/kg initial concentration and 94.4% at 91.4 - 7.9 mg/kg initial concentration, respectively. Data indicate that TNT is the probable phytotoxicant because it decreased plant emergence and growth in the presence and absence of the ADNT metabolites.
Publication date
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada; NRC Biotechnology Research Institute
Peer reviewedNo
NRC number44663
NPARC number3539281
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Record identifier28199c7e-9352-40da-8c7f-a6add63ca8ce
Record created2009-03-01
Record modified2016-05-09
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