Preventing Exposed Water Pipes from Freezing

  1. (PDF, 1 MB)
  2. Get@NRC: Preventing Exposed Water Pipes from Freezing (Opens in a new window)
AuthorSearch for:
Journal titleBuilding Research Note
Subjectpipes; water; water flow; freezing; thermal resistance; Insulation
AbstractA water pipe that is exposed to an environment at temperatures lower than the freezing point of water will not necessarily freeze even without insulation if there is a continuous flow through it, but when there is no flow it will freeze regardless of insulation. The required minimum flow rate depends on the temperature of the water entering the exposed section of pipe and the resistance to heat transfer from the water to the environment. This note presents a method of calculating the minimum water temperature required to prevent freezing in pipe-lines (with or without insulation) with a given flow rate under different weather conditions. The method can also be used to calculate the minimum flow rate for given water inlet temperatures under specified outside air temperatures and wind speeds.
Publication date
AffiliationNRC Institute for Research in Construction; National Research Council Canada
NoteAussi disponible en français: Prévention du gel des conduites d'alimentation en eau à découvert
Peer reviewedNo
NRC number1682
NPARC number20377848
Export citationExport as RIS
Report a correctionReport a correction
Record identifier30d08916-3c24-45e9-be93-b713ecbc5e1c
Record created2012-07-24
Record modified2016-05-09
Bookmark and share
  • Share this page with Facebook (Opens in a new window)
  • Share this page with Twitter (Opens in a new window)
  • Share this page with Google+ (Opens in a new window)
  • Share this page with Delicious (Opens in a new window)