Assessment of a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated site using Aporrectodea rosea and Eisenia andrei in mesocosms studies

Download
  1. Get@NRC: Assessment of a 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) contaminated site using Aporrectodea rosea and Eisenia andrei in mesocosms studies (Opens in a new window)
DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00244-004-0217-7
AuthorSearch for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for: ; Search for:
TypeArticle
Journal titleArchives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Volume48
Issue1
Pages5667; # of pages: 12
Subjectcrossgroup; env
AbstractPolynitro-organic compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) can be released into the environment from production and processing facilities and military firing ranges as well as through field use and disposal practices. Based on laboratory toxicity data, TNT has lethal (at >/=260 mg TNT/kg dry soil) and sublethal effects (at >/=59 mg TNT/kg dry soil) to the earthworm. However, field studies are needed to relate exposure of organisms to explosives in mixed-contaminated soil under field conditions and to define effects-based ecotoxicologic benchmarks for TNT-contaminated soil. In the present study, the lethal and sublethal effects of a 10-day in situ exposure at a TNT-contaminated field site using mesh-bag mesocosms were assessed. In addition to the survival end point, the biomarkers of earthworm exposure and effect-including tissue residues, lysosomal neutral red retention time (NRRT), and total immune activity (TIA)-were measured. Concentrations of TNT in soil mesocosms ranged from 25 to 17,063 mg/kg. Experiments indicated a trend toward decreasing survival of caged Aporrectodea rosea and Eisenia andrei as the concentration of TNT and total nitroaromatic compounds increased. E. andrei tolerated higher concentrations of TNT (up to 4050 mg/kg dry soil) in mesocosms than did indigenous earthworms, who survived only at </=1146 mg TNT/kg. Earthworms E. andrei and A. rose survived in 67% and 75% of TNT-contaminated mesocosms, respectively, compared with references groups. NRRT was significantly decreased in surviving earthworms from the contaminated areas compared with those from the reference site. TIA was not affected by field exposure to TNT. Earthworm tissue concentrations of TNT metabolites 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene were not correlated with TNT soil concentrations. In addition, higher tissue concentrations of TNT metabolites were observed at concentrations ranging from 116 to 130 mg TNT/kg soil. The results showed that earthworm exposure in TNT-contaminated soil produced both lethal and sublethal effects in the field. The results of study indicated that mesocosm experiments would be useful to assess the toxicity of a site and to characterize the overall effects of contaminants. However, mesocosm experiments present special considerations (e.g., abiotic factors, exposure period) when used at heterogenous sites, and data must be interpreted with caution.
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNRC Biotechnology Research Institute; National Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedNo
NRC number47187
NPARC number3539504
Export citationExport as RIS
Report a correctionReport a correction
Record identifier3626e25e-f7a1-46e5-a62f-394cfbc75837
Record created2009-03-01
Record modified2016-05-09
Bookmark and share
  • Share this page with Facebook (Opens in a new window)
  • Share this page with Twitter (Opens in a new window)
  • Share this page with Google+ (Opens in a new window)
  • Share this page with Delicious (Opens in a new window)