Effect of drive cycle and gasoline particulate filter on the size and morphology of soot particles emitted from a gasoline-direct-injection vehicle

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b02185
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TypeArticle
Journal titleEnvironmental science and technology
ISSN0013-936X
1520-5851
SubjectGDI vehicle; gasoline particulate filter; soot morphology; nucleation-mode particles; transmission electron microscopy
AbstractThe size and morphology of particulate matter emitted from a light-duty gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) vehicle, over the FTP-75 and US06 transient drive cycles, have been characterized by transmission-electron-microscope (TEM) image analysis. To investigate the impact of gasoline particulate filters on particulate-matter emission, the results for the stock-GDI vehicle, i.e., the vehicle in its original configuration, have been compared to the results for the same vehicle equipped with a catalyzed gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The stock-GDI vehicle emits graphitized fractal-like aggregates over all driving conditions. The mean projected area-equivalent diameter of these aggregates is in the 78.4‒88.4 nm range and the mean diameter of primary particles varies between 24.6 and 26.6 nm. Post-GPF particles emitted over the US06 cycle appear to have an amorphous structure, and a large number of nucleation-mode particles, depicted as low-contrast ultrafine droplets, are observed in TEM images. This indicates the emission of a substantial amount of semivolatile material during the US06 cycle, most likely generated by the incomplete combustion of accumulated soot in the GPF during regeneration. The size of primary particles and soot aggregates does not vary significantly by implementing the GPF over the FTP-75 cycle; however, particles emitted by the GPF-equipped vehicle over the US06 cycle are about 20% larger than those emitted by the stock-GDI vehicle. This may be attributed to condensation of large amounts of organic material on soot aggregates. High-contrast spots, most likely solid nonvolatile cores, are observed within many of the nucleation-mode particles emitted over the US06 cycle by the GPF-equipped vehicle. These cores are either generated inside the engine or depict incipient soot particles which are partially carbonized in the exhaust line. The effect of drive cycle and the GPF on the fractal parameters of particles, such as fractal dimension and fractal prefactor, is insignificant.
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationMeasurement Science and Standards; National Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21276009
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Record identifier4ef91efe-6606-4a9d-80fd-bb88556e172c
Record created2015-09-09
Record modified2016-05-09
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