Glutathione, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione conjugates, complementary markers of oxidative stress in aquatic biota

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-0909-x
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TypeArticle
Journal titleEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
ISSN0944-1344
1614-7499
Volume19
Issue6
Pages20072023; # of pages: 17
Subjectantioxidants; oxidative stress; conjugates; metabolites; glutathione; review; analyses; integration of biomarkers
AbstractContaminants are ubiquitous in the environment and their impacts are of increasing concern due to human population expansion and the generation of deleterious effects in aquatic species. Oxidative stress can result from the presence of persistent organic pollutants, metals, pesticides, toxins, pharmaceuticals, and nanomaterials, as well as changes in temperature or oxygen in water, the examined species, with differences in age, sex, or reproductive cycle of an individual. The antioxidant role of glutathione (GSH), accompanied by the formation of its disulfide dimer, GSSG, and metabolites in response to chemical stress, are highlighted in this review along with, to some extent, that of glutathione S-transferase (GST). The available literature concerning the use and analysis of these markers will be discussed, focusing on studies of aquatic organisms. The inclusion of GST within the suite of biomarkers used to assess the effects of xenobiotics is recommended to complement that of lipid peroxidation and mixed function oxygenation. Combining the analysis of GSH, GSSG, and conjugates would be beneficial in pinpointing the role of contaminants within the plethora of causes that could lead to the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species.
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNRC Industrial Research Assistance Program; National Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedYes
Identifier909
NPARC number21268414
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Record identifier5ee788d7-aec9-47fb-b22f-6fe1cd9ed8ea
Record created2013-07-10
Record modified2016-05-09
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