Dynamics of the ice crushing process

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Journal titleJournal of Glaciology
Pages318326; # of pages: 9
AbstractDuring fast indentation tests on ice sheets at constant rates, crushing is commonly observed at appropriate combinations of speed and aspect ratio. An analysis is made of this mode of failure, using as a basis a recently conducted test on an ice sheet under controlled conditions. The variation of load with time is given special attention, and cyclic variation of load is associated with periodic crushing (pulverization) events, followed by clearing of the crushed ice particles. An analysis of the clearing process is summarized in the paper, treating the crushed ice as a viscous material. A detailed analysis of the energy exhanges during the indentation process is given. Elastic variations of stored energy in the indenter and in the ice sheet are calculated; these are relatively minor. The dissipation of energy during a typical load cycle (3 mm movement during 0.05 s) is about 8 J. The energy required to create surfaces of the crushed ice particles is small (0.006 J), as is the work of crushing based on mechanical testing (0.09 J). It is concluded that the process of viscous extrusion of crushed ice is the main seat of energy dissipation, basically as a frictional process. A relationship for the mean thickness of the crushed ice layer is developed, based on energy-balance considerations.
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AffiliationNational Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedNo
NPARC number12330161
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Record identifier740bfec0-a4cd-4964-ba68-f3ce626c17b6
Record created2009-09-10
Record modified2016-05-09
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