Methylphenidate regulates activity regulated cytoskeletal associated but not brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression in the developing rat striatum

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2006.10.035
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TypeArticle
Journal titleNeuroscience
Volume144
Issue3
Pages969984; # of pages: 16
SubjectRitalin; attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; effector immediate early gene; striatum; cortex; oral treatment
AbstractMethylphenidate (MPH) is a psychostimulant drug used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. To explore the central effects of chronic MPH, we investigated the expression of an effector immediate early gene, activity regulated cytoskeletal associated (arc), and the neurotrophin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (bdnf) in the brain of immature and adult rats following repeated MPH. Prepubertal (postnatal day (PD) 25–38) and adult (PD 53–66) male rats were injected once daily for: a) 14 days with saline or MPH (2 or 10 mg/kg; s.c.) or b) 13 days with saline followed by a single dose of MPH (2 or 10 mg/kg; s.c.). To determine possible long-term effects of MPH, prepubertal rats were allowed a drug-free period of 4 weeks following the 14 days of treatment, and then were given a challenge dose of MPH. We demonstrated, for the first time, that an acute injection of MPH increased levels of activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (ARC) and arc mRNA in the prepubertal rat striatum and cingulate/frontal cortex. This response was significantly attenuated by chronic MPH. The desensitization in arc expression observed in prepubertal rats persisted in the adult striatum following a later MPH challenge. In contrast to these data we observed little effect of MPH on bdnf expression. We also developed an effective, non-stressful technique to treat freely moving immature rats with oral MPH. Consistent with the results described above, we observed that oral MPH (7.5 and 10 mg/kg) also increased arc expression in the prepubertal rat striatum. However, unlike the effects of injected MPH, repeated oral MPH (7.5 mg/kg) did not alter the normal arc response. This result raises the important possibility that oral doses of MPH that reproduce clinically relevant blood levels of MPH may not down-regulate gene expression, at least in the short term (14 days). We confirmed, using mass spectrometry, that the oral doses of MPH used in our experiments yielded blood levels within the clinical range observed in children. The novel oral administration paradigm that we describe thus provides a clinically relevant animal model to further explore the effects of chronic drug exposure on central gene expression in the developing rat brain.
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Copyright noticeCopyright © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNRC Institute for Marine Biosciences; National Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedYes
NRC number1221
NPARC number3538362
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Record identifier7f7bcf6e-76be-40c3-9497-5004ba60df89
Record created2009-03-01
Record modified2016-05-09
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