Detection and identification of spirolides in Norwegian shellfish and plankton

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1021/tx049706n
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TypeArticle
Journal titleChemical Research in Toxicology
Volume18
Issue3
Pages509515; # of pages: 7
Subjectalgal blooms; aquaculture; bioassays; biological poisons; chemical analysis; digestive glands; glands; chromatographic techniques; jumping; lipophilic; liquid chromatography; metabolites; molecular structure; molecular weight; mussel culture; phytoplankton; poisonous organisms; plankton; public health; seafood; symptoms; shellfish; toxicity; toxicology; toxins; uptake; Bivalvia; Alexandrium ostenfeldii
AbstractMussels sampled in the spring of 2002 and 2003 from Skjer, a location in Sognefjord, Norway, tested positive in the mouse bioassay for lipophilic toxins. The symptoms, which included cramps, jumping, and short survival times (as low as 4 min), were not characteristic of toxins previously observed in Norway. A survey of the algae present at the aquaculture sites showed that the toxicity correlated with blooms of Alexandrium ostenfeldii. Up to 2200 cells/L were found at the peak of one bloom. In Canadian waters, this alga is known to be a producer of the cyclic imine toxins, spirolides. Analysis of mussel extracts from Skjer in the spring of 2002 and 2003, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, revealed the presence of several new spirolides. The same compounds were also found in algal samples dominated by A. ostenfeldii, which had been sampled from Skjer in February 2003. A large-scale extraction of mussel digestive glands and chromatographic fractionation of the extracts allowed the isolation and structure elucidation of the main spirolide, 20-methyl spirolide G, with a molecular weight of 705.5. This is the first confirmed occurrence of spirolides in mussels and plankton from Norway.
Publication date
PublisherACS Publications
Copyright noticeCopyright © 2005 American Chemical Society
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNRC Institute for Marine Biosciences; National Research Council Canada; Aquatic and Crop Resource Development; Measurement Science and Standards
Peer reviewedYes
NRC number42465
1377
NPARC number3538547
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Record identifier896d6908-d066-4e25-92c7-0ce754019ad2
Record created2009-03-01
Record modified2016-05-09
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