|Abstract||Plankton surveys, between 2001 and 2005 along the Russian Caucasian Black Sea Coast, revealed Dinophysis rotundata, D. caudata and Prorocentrum lima as the most ubiquitous of the known dinoflagellates associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Dinophysis spp. were first observed during the spring phytoplankton succession and persist throughout the late summer phytoplankton peak. The highest total concentration, 3000 cells/L, of D. rotundata and D. caudata was observed in April 2001. Unlike Dinophysis, P. lima was rarely observed in plankton samples but closely followed storm events with maximum cell counts of P. lima occurred in July 2002.
The presence of Dinophysis in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) hepatopancreas correlated with concentration with Dinophysis observed in the plankton samples. Conversely, P. lima could be found in most hepatopancreas samples collected during the May to October period. Therefore, planktonic concentration of P. lima does not reflect its availability for and consumption by shellfish.
Samples of mussel hepatopancreas, from August 2002, with a corresponding Dinophysis concentration of 250 cells/L and no observable P. lima, were found to contain 0.03 ng OAE/g. This sample analyses by LC-MS/MS displayed okadaic acid (OA) and related congeners (DTX1) along with the pectinotoxins (PTX2 and PTX2sa). Highest observed levels of P. lima-induced DSP-toxicity in hepatopancreas was 0.41 g OA-equivalents/g corresponded to the highest observed planktonic cell counts of P. lima, 300 cell/L in August 2001. Cultures isolated from this sample were found to produce OA, DTX1 and their related diol esters.
These data reveal a threat, represented by DSP-toxic species, at Black Sea coasts, and provide grounds for the introduction of phycotoxin control measures in the region.|