Experimental modeling of extreme hydrodynamic forces on structural models

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1260/2041-4196.3.4.477
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Journal titleInternational Journal of Protective Structures
Pages477506; # of pages: 30
SubjectCross-sectional shape; Displacement-time history; Experimental modeling; Experimental program; Experimental testing; Federal Emergency Management Agency; FEMA P646; Hydrodynamic forces; Flow velocity; Hydrodynamics; Model structures; Structural design; Tsunamis; Video recording; Walls (structural partitions); Shear flow
AbstractThis paper presents the results of a comprehensive experimental program focused on the impact of extreme hydrodynamic forces on structural models generated by a turbulent hydraulic bore. The parameters investigated include: (1) bore depth-time history; (2) initial flume-bed conditions (dry bed versus wet); and (3) damping effect of mitigation walls on the hydrodynamic forces. At impact, the maximum inundation (bore) depths varied between 250 mm and 450 mm and the bore front velocity ranged from 2.6 m/s to 5.0 m/s. High-speed video recordings of the bore-structural model interaction were captured simultaneously with the base shear force-, pressure-, base overturning moment-, and top lateral displacement-time histories experienced by the structural models. Three force components were identified in the bore-induced force-time histories: impulsive, run-up (transient hydrodynamic force), and quasi-steady hydrodynamic. The impulsive or run-up force was the maximum force component experienced by the structural models under initial dry-bed flume conditions; while for the initial wet-bed flume condition, the run-up force component was the maximum force. The effect of 100 mm and 150 mm low-height mitigation walls inclined at angles of 45° or 90°, which were installed at distances of 305 mm or 915 mm upstream from the structural model, was also investigated. The angle of inclination of the mitigation walls, its location relative to the structural model, and its cross-sectional shape all influence the base shear force- and base overturning moment-time histories. The base shear forces in the direction of the flow measured during experimental testing were greater than those estimated using the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) document P646, while the Structural Design Method of Buildings for Tsunami Resistance (SMBTR) overestimated the base shear forces.
Publication date
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC); NRC Canadian Hydraulics Centre
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21269205
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Record identifierb8f972db-66c1-43d4-89dd-04d7276df948
Record created2013-12-12
Record modified2016-05-09
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