Joint photomicrobial process for the degradation of the insensitive munition N-Guanylurea-dinitramide (FOX-12)

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1021/es4006652
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TypeArticle
Journal titleEnvironmental Science & Technology
ISSN0013-936X
1520-5851
Volume47
Issue10
Pages51935198; # of pages: 6
AbstractN-Guanylurea-dinitramide (FOX-12) is a very insensitive energetic material intended to be used in the composition of next-generation insensitive munitions. To help predict the environmental behavior and fate of FOX-12, we conducted a study to determine its photodegradability and biodegradability. When dissolved in water, FOX-12, a guanylurea-dinitramide salt, also named GUDN, dissociated instantly to produce the dinitramide moiety and guanylurea, as demonstrated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. When an aqueous solution of FOX-12 was subjected to photolysis using a solar-simulated photoreactor, we found a rapid removal of the dinitramide with concurrent formation of N₂O, NO₂⁻, and NO₃⁻. The second component, guanylurea, was photostable. However, when FOX-12 was incubated aerobically with the soil isolate Variovorax strain VC1 and protected from light, the dinitramide component of FOX-12 was recalcitrant but guanylurea degraded effectively to ammonia, guanidine, and presumably CO₂. When FOX-12 was incubated with strain VC1 in the presence of light, both components of FOX-12 degraded, giving similar products to those described above. We concluded that the new insensitive explosive FOX-12 can be effectively degraded by a joint photomicrobial process and, therefore, should not cause persistent contamination of surface waters.
Publication date
PublisherACS Publications
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada; Energy, Mining and Environment; Aquatic and Crop Resource Development
Peer reviewedYes
NRC number55481
NPARC number21268600
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Record identifierc58efae5-5ca4-41c4-b29f-3bf06a802562
Record created2013-10-25
Record modified2016-05-09
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