A review of graphene-based nanostructural materials for both catalyst supports and metal-free catalysts in PEM fuel cell oxygen reduction reactions

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1002/aenm.201301523
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TypeArticle
Journal titleAdvanced Energy Materials
ISSN1614-6840
Volume4
Issue8
Article number1301523
SubjectCatalysis; Catalyst supports; Characterization; Electrocatalysts; Electrolytic reduction; Fuel cells; Graphene; Materials; Metals; Nanostructured materials; Polyelectrolytes; Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC); Carbon-supported catalysts; Nanostructural materials; Nitrogen-doped graphene; Non-precious metal catalysts; Oxygen reduction reaction; Performance optimizations; Polymer electrolyte membranes; Supported-metal catalysts; Catalyst activity
AbstractA comprehensive overview and description of graphene-based nanomaterials explored in recent years for catalyst supports and metal-free catalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) is presented. The catalyst material structures/morphologies, material selection, and design for synthesis, catalytic performance, catalytic mechanisms, and theoretical approaches for catalyst down-selection and catalyzed ORR mechanisms are emphasized with respect to the performance of ORR catalysts in terms of both activity and stability. When graphene-based materials, including graphene and doped graphene, are used as the supporting materials for both Pt/Pt alloy catalysts and non-precious metal catalyst, the resulting ORR catalysts can give superior catalyst activity and stability compared to those of conventional carbon-supported catalysts; when they are used as metal-free ORR catalysts, significant catalytic activity and stability are observed. The nitrogen-doped graphene materials even show superior performance compared to supported metal catalysts. Challenges including the lack of material mass production, unoptimized catalyst structure/morphology, insufficient fundamental understanding, and testing tools/protocols for performance optimization and validation are identified, and approaches to address these challenges are suggested. A comprehensive overview and description of graphene-based nanomaterials for catalyst supports and metal-free catalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) is presented. The catalyst material selection, design, synthesis, and characterization, as well as a theoretical understanding of the catalysis process and mechanisms are discussed. The challenges and their corresponding approaches, in addition to directions for future perspectives and research are suggested. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC); Energy, Mining and Environment (EME-EME)
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21272216
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Record identifiercc279753-f330-489b-984a-1af38db6beed
Record created2014-07-23
Record modified2016-05-09
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