Ecotoxicological assessment of a high energetic and insensitive munitions compound : 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN)

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.08.043
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TypeArticle
Journal titleJournal of Hazardous Materials
ISSN0304-3894
Volume262
Pages143150; # of pages: 8
Subject2 ,4 ,6-trinitrotoluene; 2 ,4-dinitroanisole; Ecotoxicity; Ecotoxicological assessment; Environmental risk assessment; Experimental conditions; Microtox; Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata; Algae; Ammunition; Aromatic compounds; Environmental impact; Explosives; Risk assessment; Toxicity; 2,4 dinitroanisole; aromatic nitro compound; nitrobenzene derivative; unclassified drug; bacterium; bioluminescence; concentration (composition); decision making; dose-response relationship; earthworm; ecotoxicology; environmental impact; environmental risk; grass; green alga; risk assessment; toxicity test; trinitrotoluene; algal growth; article; avoidance behavior; bioavailability; bioluminescence; biotransformation; concentration response; earthworm; ecotoxicity; Eisenia andrei; environmental impact; fluid balance; growth inhibition; nonhuman; oxidative phosphorylation; perennial ryegrass; Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata; Vibrio fischeri
AbstractThe high explosive nitroaromatic 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) is less shock sensitive than 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), and is proposed as a TNT replacement for melt-cast formulations. Before using DNAN in munitions and potentially leading to environmental impact, the present study examines the ecotoxicity of DNAN using selected organisms. In water, DNAN decreased green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth (EC50=4.0mg/L), and bacteria Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence (Microtox, EC50=60.3mg/L). In soil, DNAN decreased perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne growth (EC50=7mg/kg), and is lethal to earthworms Eisenia andrei (LC50=47mg/kg). At sub-lethal concentrations, DNAN caused an avoidance response (EC50=31mg/kg) by earthworms. The presence of DNAN and 2-amino-4-nitroanisole in earthworms and plants suggested a role of these compounds in DNAN toxicity. Toxicity of DNAN was compared to TNT, tested under the same experimental conditions. These analyses showed that DNAN was equally, or even less deleterious to organism health than TNT, depending on the species and toxicity test. The present studies provide baseline toxicity data to increase the understanding of the environmental impact of DNAN, and assist science-based decision makers for improved management of potential DNAN contaminated sites. © 2013.
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC); Aquatic and Crop Resource Development
Peer reviewedYes
NRC number55573
NPARC number21269865
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Record identifierd2998754-2cb7-4801-9ff5-a510027642f8
Record created2013-12-13
Record modified2016-05-09
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