A novel synthetic receptor-based immunoassay for influenza vaccine quantification

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055428
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Journal titlePLoS ONE
Article numbere55428
Subjectalpha 2,3 sialyllactoside receptor; alpha 2,3 sialyltransferase; alpha 2,6 sialyllactoside receptor; alpha 2,6 sialyltransferase; n acetylneuraminic acid 2,3 lactose; n acetylneuraminic acid 2,6 lactose; n acetylneuraminic acid derivative; serum albumin; sialic acid; virus hemagglutinin; virus receptor; antigen specificity; avian influenza virus; enzyme linked immunosorbent assay; immunodiffusion; influenza; influenza vaccination; linkage analysis; nucleotide sequence; pH measurement; protein protein interaction; quantitative analysis; sensitivity analysis; sensitivity and specificity; sialylation; temperature measurement; Antigens, Viral; Azides; Birds; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Glycosides; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus; Immunodiffusion; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype; Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype; Influenza in Birds; Influenza Vaccines; N-Acetylneuraminic Acid; Protein Denaturation; Protein Multimerization; Protein Structure, Quaternary; Sialyltransferases; Species Specificity
AbstractVaccination is the most effective prophylactic method for preventing influenza. Quantification of influenza vaccine antigens is critically important before the vaccine is used for human immunization. Currently the vaccine antigen quantification relies on hemagglutinin content quantification, the key antigenic component, by single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay. Due to the inherent disadvantages associated with the traditional SRID; i.e. low sensitivity, low throughput and need for annual reagents, several approaches have been proposed and investigated as alternatives. Yet, most alternative methods cannot distinguish native hemagglutinin from denatured form, making them less relevant to antigenic analyses. Here, we developed a quantitative immunoassay based on the sialic acid binding property of influenza vaccine antigens. Specifically, we chemically synthesized human and avian influenza virus receptors analogues, N-acetylneuraminic acid-2,6-lactose and N-acetylneuraminic acid-2,3-lactose derivatives with an azidopropyl aglycon, using α-2,6- and α-2,3-sialyltransferases, respectively. The azido group of the two sialyllactose-derivatives was reduced and conjugated to mouse serum albumin through a squarate linkage. We showed that the synthetic α-2,6- and α-2,3-receptors selectively bound to human and avian-derived hemagglutinins, respectively, forming the basis of a new, and robust assay for hemagglutinin quantification. Hemagglutinin treated at high temperature or low pH was measured differentially to untreated samples suggesting native conformation is dependent for optimal binding. Importantly, this receptor-based immunoassay showed excellent specificity and reproducibility, high precision, less turnaround time and significantly higher sensitivity and throughput compared with SRID in analyzing multiple influenza vaccines. © 2013 Hashem et al.
Publication date
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC); NRC Institute for Biological Sciences (IBS-ISB)
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21269603
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Record identifierd692ba1d-c93b-442a-9928-ad2532609e32
Record created2013-12-13
Record modified2016-07-18
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