Subwavelength and diffractive waveguide structures and their applications in nanophotonics and sensing

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1117/12.875431
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TypeArticle
Proceedings titleProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ConferenceIntegrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XV, 24 January 2011 through 26 January 2011, San Francisco, CA
ISSN0277-786X
ISBN9780819484789
Volume7941
Article number794111
SubjectBiological sensors; Constituent materials; Device sizes; Diffractive structures; Diffractive surfaces; Evanescent fields; Fibre-chip microphotonic coupler; Lithographic patterning; Microphotonic waveguides; Operation bandwidth; Silicon-on-insulator waveguide; Sub-wavelength; Subwavelength grating; Surface grating coupler and evanescent field sensor; Telecom wavelengths; Tuning mechanism; Two-materials; Waveguide core; Waveguide crossings; Waveguide structure; Wavelength dependence; Wavelength ranges; Biosensors; Diffraction; Diffraction gratings; Fiber optic sensors; Integrated optics; Integration; Light refraction; Nanophotonics; Nanostructures; Optical materials; Optical waveguides; Organic polymers; Photonics; Planar waveguides; Refractive index; Refractometers; Silicon compounds; Silicon oxides; Surfaces
AbstractWe review recent advances in subwavelength and diffractive structures in planar waveguides. First, we present a new type of microphotonic waveguide, exploiting the subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate several examples of subwavelength grating waveguides and components made of silicon, operating at telecom wavelengths. The SWG technique allows for engineering of the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.5-3.5 simply by lithographic patterning using only two materials, for example Si and SiO2. This circumvents an important limitation in integrated optics, which is the fixed value of the refractive indices of the constituent materials in the absence of an active tuning mechanism. A subwavelength grating fibre-chip microphotonic coupler is presented with a loss as low as 0.9 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence over a broad wavelength range exceeding 200 nm. It is shown that the SWG waveguides can be used to make efficient waveguide crossings with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk. We also present a diffractive surface grating coupler with subwavelength nanostructure, that has been implemented in a Si-wire evanescent field biological sensor. Furthermore, we discuss a new type of planar waveguide multiplexer with a SWG engineered nanostructure, yielding an operation bandwidth exceeding 170 nm for a device size of only 160 μm × 100 μm.
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC); NRC Institute for Microstructural Sciences
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21271297
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Record identifiereef38fa5-f798-443d-a5f2-8f67e66269eb
Record created2014-03-24
Record modified2016-05-09
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