Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is involved in the regulation of hypoxia-stimulated expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and MCP-5 (Ccl12) in astrocytes

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Journal titleJ.Neuroinflammation.
SubjectAnimals; assay; Astrocytes; Binding Sites; biosynthesis; Brain; Canada; cell; Cell Hypoxia; CELLS; Cells,Cultured; Chemokine CCL2; DNA; EXPRESSION; GENE; Gene Expression Regulation; Genes; genetics; Human; Humans; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1; Inflammation; interaction; Ischemia; metabolism; method; Methods; Mice; Mice,Transgenic; Monocyte Chemoattractant Proteins; Monocytes; MUTANT; Oxygen; pathology; physiology; PROGRAM; protein; Role; SEQUENCE; SITE; SITES; SUBUNIT; TARGET
AbstractBACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation has been implicated in various brain pathologies characterized by hypoxia and ischemia. Astroglia play an important role in the initiation and propagation of hypoxia/ischemia-induced inflammation by secreting inflammatory chemokines that attract neutrophils and monocytes into the brain. However, triggers of chemokine up-regulation by hypoxia/ischemia in these cells are poorly understood. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a dimeric transcriptional factor consisting of HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta subunits. HIF-1 binds to HIF-1-binding sites in the target genes and activates their transcription. We have recently shown that hypoxia-induced expression of IL-1beta in astrocytes is mediated by HIF-1alpha. In this study, we demonstrate the role of HIF-1alpha in hypoxia-induced up-regulation of inflammatory chemokines, human monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and mouse MCP-5 (Ccl12), in human and mouse astrocytes, respectively. METHODS: Primary fetal human astrocytes or mouse astrocytes generated from HIF-1alpha+/+ and HIF-1alpha+/- mice were subjected to hypoxia (<2% oxygen) or 125 muM CoCl2 for 4 h and 6 h, respectively. The expression of HIF-1alpha, MCP-1 and MCP-5 was determined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, western blot or ELISA. The interaction of HIF-1alpha with a HIF-1-binding DNA sequence was examined by EMSA and supershift assay. HIF-1-binding sequence in the promoter of MCP-1 gene was cloned and transcriptional activation of MCP-1 by HIF-1alpha was analyzed by reporter gene assay. RESULTS: Sequence analyses identified HIF-1-binding sites in the promoters of MCP-1 and MCP-5 genes. Both hypoxia and HIF-1alpha inducer, CoCl2, strongly up-regulated HIF-1alpha expression in astrocytes. Mouse HIF-1alpha+/- astrocytes had lower basal levels of HIF-1alpha and MCP-5 expression. The up-regulation of MCP-5 by hypoxia or CoCl2 in HIF-1alpha+/+ and HIF-1alpha+/- astrocytes was correlated with the levels of HIF-1alpha in cells. Both hypoxia and CoCl2 also up-regulated HIF-1alpha and MCP-1 expression in human astrocytes. EMSA assay demonstrated that HIF-1 activated by either hypoxia or CoCl2 binds to wild-type HIF-1-binding DNA sequence, but not the mutant sequence. Furthermore, reporter gene assay demonstrated that hypoxia markedly activated MCP-1 transcription but not the mutated MCP-1 promoter in transfected astrocytes. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that both MCP-1 and MCP-5 are HIF-1 target genes and that HIF-1alpha is involved in transcriptional induction of these two chemokines in astrocytes by hypoxia
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AffiliationNRC Institute for Biological Sciences; National Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedNo
NPARC number9363015
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Record identifierf7eec4c2-1d24-40d1-bac6-c84ef591dbd2
Record created2009-07-10
Record modified2016-05-09
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