Impact of carbondiimide crosslinker used for magnetic carbon nanotube mediated GFP plasmid delivery

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/22/28/285103
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TypeArticle
Journal titleNanotechnology
ISSN0957-4484
Volume22
Issue28
Article number285103
Abstract1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbondiimide hydrochloride (EDC) is commonly used as a crosslinker to help bind biomolecules, such as DNA plasmids, with nanostructures. However, EDC often remains, after a crosslink reaction, in the micro-aperture of the nanostructure, e.g., carbon nanotube. The remaining EDC shows positive green fluorescent signals and makes a nanostructure with a strong cytotoxicity which induces cell death. The toxicity of EDC was confirmed on a breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and two leukemic cell lines (THP-1 and KG-1). The MCF-7 cells mainly underwent necrosis after treatment with EDC, which was verified by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) annexin V staining, video microscopy and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). If the EDC was not removed completely, the nanostructures with remaining EDC produced a green fluorescent background that could interfere with flow cytometry (FACS) measurement and result in false information about GFP plasmid delivery. Effective methods to remove residual EDC on macromolecules were also developed. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationNational Research Council Canada (NRC-CNRC); National Institute for Nanotechnology
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21271968
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Record identifierf8d5582c-7698-41d6-867c-9de080a8c0b5
Record created2014-05-14
Record modified2016-05-09
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