Review of Three Dimensional Water Fog Techniques for Firefighting

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TypeTechnical Report
Series titleResearch Report (National Research Council Canada. Institute for Research in Construction); no. RR-124
Physical description18 p.
Subjectwater fog, firefighting, gas cooling, fire suppression, computer simulation; Water mist
AbstractThis report provides a review of research into, and application of, a three dimensional (3D) water fog technique for firefighting. The impact of water fog characteristics associated with properties of the nozzle (e.g., droplet size, momentum, flow rate, spray angle and pattern) and discharge techniques (e.g., discharge angle, and discharge duration related to the bursts) on performance of the 3D water fog technique are discussed. Potential use of numerical computer studies to help understand and improve this technique is also reviewed and discussed. The 3D water fog technique is not designed to replace the direct fire attack but rather to complement existing forms of fire attack in an effort to increase the safety and effectiveness of fire fighting teams. Compared to the traditional straight-stream attack, the 3D water fog technique has advantages in controlling steadily growing fires where the space can still be entered, but where the seat of the fire cannot be attacked directly. It has also been used for offensive attack to control flashover. However, there is not sufficient research to evaluate its capabilities in other fire scenarios, such as reducing the likelihood of backdraft, and in controlling fire threats in low visibility scenarios. Research on the effects of the nozzle type, application techniques and fire conditions on the performance of the 3D water fog tactic is also very limited. Further research efforts, including both experimental and numerical studies, can help firefighters understand how to most effectively use this technique and also help to improve its performance in firefighting.
Publication date
PublisherNational Research Council Canada
AffiliationNRC Institute for Research in Construction; National Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedNo
NRC numberNRC-IRC-15202
NPARC number20386171
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Record identifier7463fbf8-4148-48c5-bd82-7e641a61bcb1
Record created2012-07-25
Record modified2017-06-14
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