High-density sodium and lithium ion battery anodes from banana peels

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DOIResolve DOI: http://doi.org/10.1021/nn502045y
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TypeArticle
Journal titleACS Nano
ISSN1936-0851
Volume8
Issue7
Pages71157129; # of pages: 15
SubjectCarbon; graphite; graphene; battery; capacitor; SIB; NIB; NAB
AbstractBanana peel pseudographite (BPPG) offers superb dual functionality for sodium ion battery (NIB) and lithium ion battery (LIB) anodes. The materials possess low surface areas (19-217 m2 g-1) and a relatively high electrode packing density (0.75 g cm-3 vs ∼1 g cm -3 for graphite). Tested against Na, BPPG delivers a gravimetric (and volumetric) capacity of 355 mAh g-1 (by active material ∼700 mAh cm-3, by electrode volume ∼270 mAh cm-3) after 10 cycles at 50 mA g-1. A nearly flat ∼200 mAh g-1 plateau that is below 0.1 V and a minimal charge/discharge voltage hysteresis make BPPG a direct electrochemical analogue to graphite but with Na. A charge capacity of 221 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1 is degraded by 7% after 600 cycles, while a capacity of 336 mAh g-1 at 100 mAg -1 is degraded by 11% after 300 cycles, in both cases with ∼100% cycling Coulombic efficiency. For LIB applications BPPG offers a gravimetric (volumetric) capacity of 1090 mAh g-1 (by material ∼2200 mAh cm-3, by electrode ∼900 mAh cm-3) at 50 mA g -1. The reason that BPPG works so well for both NIBs and LIBs is that it uniquely contains three essential features: (a) dilated intergraphene spacing for Na intercalation at low voltages; (b) highly accessible near-surface nanopores for Li metal filling at low voltages; and (c) substantial defect content in the graphene planes for Li adsorption at higher voltages. The <0.1 V charge storage mechanism is fundamentally different for Na versus for Li. A combination of XRD and XPS demonstrates highly reversible Na intercalation rather than metal underpotential deposition. By contrast, the same analysis proves the presence of metallic Li in the pores, with intercalation being much less pronounced.
Publication date
LanguageEnglish
AffiliationSecurity and Disruptive Technologies; National Research Council Canada
Peer reviewedYes
NPARC number21272920
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Record identifierae47870c-af02-4d54-a9fe-27189ab0a0cf
Record created2014-12-03
Record modified2016-05-09
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